Views: 245 Author: Ubest Publish Time: 2023-10-30 Origin: Site
How to categorize UPS power stations based on their fundamental principles and robust software functions
Today's market offers a variety of UPS power stations with output power ranging from 500VA to 4800KVA (multiple units in parallel). According to their operation, UPS power stations are classified into three types: backup UPS, online interactive UPS, and online UPS. It is classified into two types based on the output waveform: square wave output UPS and sine wave output UPS. It is structurally divided into two categories: DC UPS and AC UPS. UPS are classified into two types based on backup time: standard and long-term. The specific classification is as follows:
When the mains power input is normal, it passes directly through the bypass and powers the load via the conversion switch. The machine's rectifier charger is operational, and the battery is floating charged. When the mains power station is interrupted or outside the UPS's input voltage range, the battery supplies power to the inverter of the UPS and provides stable and frequency AC power to the load. For several milliseconds (2 to 10 milliseconds), the conversion between these is interrupted. It not only improves the fluctuation amplitude of the mains voltage, but it also has a minor impact on frequency instability, waveform distortion, and power grid interference. The benefits of a backup UPS power station include high operating efficiency, low noise, and low cost. It is appropriate for situations where there is little market fluctuation and there are few requirements for power station quality (such as home computers, sales points, and so on). Related product:1000W 896Wh Portable Power Station.
When the mains power input is normal, it bypasses the bypass and powers the load via the conversion switch. The UPS inverter is in reverse mode (charging the battery pack in a rectifier working state); when the mains power fails, the inverter immediately switches to the inverter working mode, converting the battery pack energy into AC output. As a result, an intelligent UPS has an online interactive UPS with conversion time. Online interactive UPS has a stronger protection function than backup UPS, and the output voltage waveform of the inverter is typically a sine wave. Its main advantage is that it has a powerful software function that can easily connect to the internet for remote control and intelligent UPS management. This type of UPS combines the benefits of backup UPS efficiency and online UPS power station quality, but its frequency stability performance is not ideal and is not suitable for long-delay UPS power stations.
When the mains power station is operating normally, the AC power station is converted to a DC power station via a rectifier, which is then pulse width modulated and filtered. The inverter then converts the DC power station to the load [mains power rectification (while charging the battery) - inverter load]. When the power goes out, the battery immediately powers the load via the inverter (DC to AC). As a result, regardless of the presence or absence of mains power, the online UPS power station is always powered by the inverter of the UPS power station to the load, avoiding all impacts caused by voltage fluctuations and disturbances in the mains power grid. When compared to backup UPS and online interactive UPS, the power quality of online UPS is much higher because it can achieve stable frequency and voltage supply to the load and has a zero conversion time from mains power to battery power.
The power frequency online UPS can also be classified as single input and single output (input220V/output220V), three input and single output (input380V/output220V), and three input and three output (input380V/output380V) based on the input and output voltage working mode, which is commonly referred to as "S11, S31, S33". It can be divided into two categories based on redundancy:
1. With this type of UPS, the master-slave hot backup is connected in series, with the host carrying 100% load. In a battery floating charge state, the slave machine is connected to the host machine's bypass and supplies power to the host bypass at a load rate of 0. When the host inverter fails, the slave machine will use the host bypass to continue powering the load. The host's capacity must be greater than or equal to that of the slave. The main power station is powered by the same bus.
2. Redundant parallel connection: Each UPS unit carries 50% of the load, and if one fails, the other will be fully loaded. The two UPS should have the same capacity. Their main power station can be drawn from multiple bus bars, but the bypass power station must share a single one.
Some online UPS power sources have two inputs: one from the mains and one from other power grids or generators (large and medium-sized UPS). Computer, transportation, banking, securities, communication, medical, metallurgical, petrochemical, military, and other industries can benefit from online UPS.
1. Square wave UPS: This type of UPS power station has a low load capacity (40-60% of the rated load) and cannot handle inductive loads. If the load is too large, the third harmonic component in the square wave output voltage will increase the capacitive current flowing into the load, and in severe cases, it will damage the load's power filter capacitor. In the future, this type of UPS will most likely be used as a backup UPS.
2. UPS Sine Wave: This type of UPS power station's relationship between output voltage waveform distortion and load is not as obvious as that of a square wave output UPS power station. It has a relatively high load-carrying capacity and is capable of carrying micro-inductive loads. This type of UPS is commonly found in online UPS, and the outputs of some backup UPS are also sine waves.
1. DC UPS: consists of two basic components: a rectifier and a battery.
2. AC UPS: When the mains power is turned on, the rectifier/inverter supplies current to the load while charging the battery. When there is a power outage or a rectifier failure, the control circuit switches to allow the battery to supply power to the load, and the voltage flow is from the battery to the inverter to the load. The AC UPS power station is made up of three basic components. They consist of a rectifier, a battery, and an inverter.
1. Standard type (standard machine): The host is equipped with a battery pack that can keep a power station running for a short time after a power outage (the delay time varies between 5 and 20 minutes, depending on the load carried; the smaller the load, the longer the delay time).
2. Long-term (long-term): The host does not come with a battery, but it does come with a charger. Users can connect multiple sets of batteries to extend the power station's lifespan. When supplying, manufacturers will increase the charger capacity or install parallel chargers. Long-delay machines typically run for 30 minutes to 8 hours.
Furthermore, based on their composition principles, UPS can be divided into rotating UPS and stationary UPS. Commercial UPS (high-frequency machine: output without isolation transformer) and industrial UPS (industrial frequency machine: output with isolation transformer) are the two types based on application.
UPS technology has advanced to a new level as science and technology continue to advance. Users will understand its purpose and classification more in the future.