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The Basics of Battery Management Systems (BMSs) Design

Views: 355     Author: Ubest     Publish Time: 2023-12-01      Origin: Site


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The Basics of Battery Management Systems (BMSs) Design

Battery management systems (BMSs) can monitor batteries in a wide range of devices and applications. A BMS's design becomes more sophisticated as the complexity of the solution it is used in increases. As a result, in addition to the basic structure and functionality, the system can add new elements, modules, and levels. This post discusses various BMS arrangements and configurations, as well as the custom hardware design of a BMS intended for a stationary home energy storage solution. You'll learn which components to use and how to connect them to create a solid BMS architecture. You'll also learn about the major challenges that arise during the BMS design process.

Battery management systems monitor and optimize battery charge and discharge cycles to help ensure battery performance, longevity, and protection from damage. The BMS market is expanding rapidly, driven by the trend toward clean energy and the surge in the consumption of devices and systems that use rechargeable batteries. According to Spherical Insights, the global BMS market will more than sixfold over the next decade, rising from $7.9 billion in 2022 to $48.4 billion by 2032.

Any battery management system, whether simple or complex, has a set of essential functions and specific components to implement them. Then, the more requirements you have, the more elements you need to add to your system. Let us now examine the core BMS functionality. Click here for our 48V 100AH Wall-mounted Home Energy Storage System.

1. Primary BMS Functions

A BMS is made up of several important tasks that are required to manage a battery. It should be noted that each function can be supported by several functional blocks and electronic components.

2. Battery tracking

A BMS monitors the parameters of the cells that make up a battery using various sensors and measurement units. A BMS can measure the current, voltage, and temperature of the battery based on the demands of your system.

3. Battery management

A BMS's primary goal is to keep a battery within its safe operating range. It can balance cells, calculate the state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH), and protect the battery from overvoltage, overheating, and other dangerous conditions. A BMS regulates charging and discharging and can interrupt these processes to protect the battery from potential hazards.

4. Communication

This function involves sending signals between the internal components of a BMS as well as external devices and systems that are linked to it. A BMS, for example, can show battery data on a dashboard or human-machine interface (HMI). A charger can be part of a BMS or a separate device, and they must be connected. Communications between BMSs can be wired or wireless.

BMS topologies

5. The BMS Topology

A battery management system's components can be arranged in a variety of ways. These configurations, known as topologies, can be centralized, distributed, or modular.

6. Topology of centralized BMS

A single BMS printed circuit board (PCB) with a control unit manages all cells in a battery via multiple communication channels in a centralized topology. This configuration makes a BMS a bulky, inflexible, but cost-effective solution.

BMSs with centralized topologies dominate the BMS market because their design and construction are easier and less expensive than other topologies. According to Grand View Research, centralized BMS will account for more than 43.0% of global revenue in 2022.

7. Topology of distributed BMS

Every battery cell has its own BMS PCB in this case, and a control unit is connected to the entire battery via a single channel. The daisy chain is a distributed topology variation designed for systems with a low need for fault tolerance. Distributed BMSs are simple to set up but expensive due to the abundance of electronics.

8. BMS modular topology

A modular BMS is a hybrid of the two topologies described above. This configuration is also known as the decentralized, star, or master and slave topology. There are several interconnected control units (slaves) in a battery, each of which oversees a group of cells. The slaves are linked to the main control unit or master, which is in charge of the battery's integrity and safety. A modular BMS topology can provide a good balance of cost and design complexity.

According to Precedence Research, the modular topology segment of the global BMS market will grow at the fastest rate over the next decade.

Core BMS functionality

Aside from different BMS topologies, there are three ways to organize cells in a battery pack: you can connect them in series, parallel, or series-parallel. The serial combination can increase the battery's voltage; the parallel connection can increase its capacity; and the series-parallel configuration can increase both.

Configurations of BMS

The number of modules, levels, and subsystems in BMS types and configurations varies. Simple circuitry or a set of PCBs with microcontrollers (MCUs) and firmware can be used to implement BMS functionality. Furthermore, larger and more complex battery management systems may employ complex BMS software and algorithms.

A BMS is a no-brainer solution when connected to the battery of a simple electronic device. It can only monitor the basic parameters and start the charging process here. Typically, such battery management systems consist of a control unit, a measurement device, a charger, and the battery itself.

A BMS, as part of a battery energy storage system (BESS), can do a lot more and may require a larger size, more power, and broader functionality. A multimodular and multilevel structure will be found in a BMS installed in a microgrid, black-start solution, uninterruptible power supply (UPS), or another BESS.

The most important factors influencing the complexity of BMS design are reliability and fault tolerance. If a battery-operated system performs a life-critical function, for example, serves as an emergency power system for a hospital, it requires strong battery control. Extreme environments necessitate increased protection and a variety of BMS safety features for battery storage devices.

We created battery management solutions of varying difficulty as part of our power electronics design services, ranging from a simple BMS to a cutting-edge device integrated into a larger energy storage system.

It should be noted that the global popularity of lithium-ion batteries is increasing due to their widespread use in a variety of devices ranging from electric vehicles to battery energy storage systems. Spherical Insights says that the lithium-ion battery segment is expected to have the highest CAGR in the global BMS market from 2022 to 2032.

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